Explore this interactive graph: Click and drag either axis to display different parts of the graph. To squeeze or stretch the graph in either direction, hold your Shift key down, then click and drag. The light blue line shows seasonal 3-month sea level estimates from Church and White The darker line is based on University of Hawaii Fast Delivery sea level data. For more detail on the data sources, see the end of the article.
Atlas of the Oceans.
South Beach, Miami on May 3, In urban settings along coastlines around the world, rising seas threaten infrastructure necessary for local jobs and regional industries. Roads, bridges, subways, water supplies, oil and gas wells, power plants, sewage treatment plants, landfills—the list is practically endless—are all at risk from sea level rise.
Nuisance flooding in Annapolis in Around the U.
Sea Level Rise
Photo by Amy McGovern. In the natural world, rising sea level creates stress on coastal ecosystems that provide recreation, protection from storms, and habitat for fish and wildlife, including commercially valuable fisheries. As seas rise, saltwater is also intruding into freshwater aquifers, many of which sustain municipal and agricultural water supplies and natural ecosystems. Sea level is rising for two main reasons: glaciers and ice sheets are melting and adding water to the ocean and the volume of the ocean is expanding as the water warms.
Impact of Sea Level Rise | Ministry of Earth Sciences
A third, much smaller contributor to sea level rise is a decline in water storage on land—aquifers, lakes and reservoirs, rivers, soil moisture—mostly as a result of groundwater pumping, which has shifted water from aquifers to the ocean. From the s up through the last decade, melting and thermal expansion were contributing roughly equally to the observed sea level rise. But the melting of glaciers and ice sheets has accelerated, and over the past decade, the amount of sea level rise due to melting—with a small addition from groundwater transfer and other water storage shifts—has been nearly twice the amount o f sea level rise due to thermal expansion.
Melt streams on the Greenland Ice Sheet on July 19, Ice loss from the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets as well as alpine glaciers has accelerated in recent decades. Sea level rise at specific locations may be more or less than the global average due to local factors: subsidence, upstream flood control, erosion, regional ocean currents, and whether the land is still rebounding from the compressive weight of Ice Age glaciers.
Sea level is measured by two main methods: tide gauges and satellite laser altimeters. Tide gauge stations from around the world have measured the daily high and low tides for more than a century, using a variety of manual and automatic sensors. Using data from scores of stations around the world, scientists can calculate a global average and adjust it for seasonal differences.
Since the early s, sea level has been measured from space using laser altimeters, which determine the height of the sea surface by measuring the return speed and intensity of a laser pulse directed at the ocean. The higher the sea level, the faster and stronger the return signal is. To estimate how much of the observed sea level rise is due to thermal expansion, scientists measure sea surface temperature using moored and drifting buoys, satellites, and water samples collected by ships. Temperatures in the upper half of the ocean volume are measured by a global fleet of aquatic robots.
Observed sea level since the start of the satellite altimeter record in black line , plus independent estimates of the different contributions to sea level rise: thermal expansion red and added water, mostly due to glacier melt blue. NOAA Climate. When water shifts from land to ocean, the increase in mass increases the strength of gravity over oceans by a small amount.
From these gravity shifts, scientists estimate the amount of added water. As global temperatures continue to warm, sea level will continue to rise. How much it will rise depends mostly on the rate of future carbon dioxide emissions and future global warming. How fast it will rise depends mostly on the rate of glacier and ice sheet melting. The pace of sea level rise accelerated beginning in the s, coinciding with acceleration in glacier and ice sheet melting. In , at the request of the U.
Do you have feedback to offer on this or another article? Let us know what you think. It is based on a weighted average of global tide gauge records collected by the U. The weights for each gauge in the global mean are determined by a cluster analysis that groups gauges from locations where sea level tends to vary in the same way.
This prevents over-emphasizing regions where there are many tide gauges located in close proximity. The values are shown as change in sea level in millimeters compared to the average. Church, J. Surveys in Geophysics, 32 , — Summary for Policymakers. Qin, G. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.
Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. But it is an important measurement for two main reasons:. The problem with measuring the sea level is that there are so many things that perturb it.
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If you could take planet Earth and move it out into deep space so that the sun , moons and other planets did not affect it and there were no temperature variations worldwide, then everything would settle down like a still pond. Rain and wind would stop, and so would the rivers. Then you could measure sea level accurately.
If you did this, the level of the ocean's water projected across the entire planet would be called the geoid. On land, you can think of the geoid as the level that ocean water would have if you were to dig a canal from the ocean's shore to any point on land. But the Earth is not in deep space -- it is in the middle of a chaotic solar system.
Climate Change: Global Sea Level
There are all sorts of things changing the water level at any given point, including:. If you were to stand on the ocean shore and try to measure sea level with a ruler, you would find it to be impossible -- the level changes by the second waves , by the hour tides and by the week planetary and solar orbit changes. To get around this, scientists try using tide gauges. A tide gauge is a large 1 foot [30 cm] or more in diameter , long pipe with a small hole below the water line. This pipe is often called a stilling well. Even though waves are changing the water level outside the gauge constantly, they have little effect inside the gauge.
The sea level can be read relatively accurately inside this pipe. If read on a regular basis over a time span of years and then averaged, you can get a measurement of sea level.
You can see that getting an accurate reading for example, down to the millimeter level is extremely difficult. Satellites are now used as well, but they suffer from many of the same problems.