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Such population sinks may effectively reduce the dispersal rate of lynx and thus the gene flow between neighbouring populations inhabiting different forest patches. Indeed, based on mtDNA haplotype frequencies, it was found that the lynx population from the BPF was significantly divergent from neighbouring populations Ratkiewicz et al.

Estonian Journal of Ecology

Furthermore, it was characterised by a relatively low allelic richness Schmidt et al. Our study suggests that the effect of habitat fragmentation on the lynx population is probably reinforced by higher human-induced mortality in areas between forest patches occupied by lynx. Edge effect related to accidental and deliberate human-induced mortality of carnivores when ranging beyond the protected or core distribution areas was reported also for other species of carnivores such as leopards, lions or badgers Revilla et al.

In contrast to the common assumption about the inverse relationship between the economic development of the country and the effectiveness of nature protection Tisdell , our report presents a case of a possible positive effect of economic growth in decreasing the mortality of a large predator. However, fragmentation of lynx habitat may still be the main factor hampering the population increase and expansion due to strong edge effects in their mortality on limiting dispersal and gene flow amongst populations.

Therefore, this result emphasises the necessity of restoring habitat connectivity by ecological corridors as one of the most important conservation measures for successful protection of this felid. Acknowledgments The study was financed by the Polish Ministry of Sciences grant nos. This work was partly based on published data collected in collaboration with dr W.

Special thanks go to E. Bujko for his help in trapping and radio-tracking lynx. The following students and volunteers also assisted in the study: T. Podgorski, A.

Timing of bud burst and tree-leaf development in a multispecies temperate forest.

Gulczynska, L. Sonnichsen, E. Schutz, M. Adams, M. Kruit, C. Conti, A. Nuno, A. Nees, B. Cristescu and P.

Predation in Vertebrate Communities

Permission for lynx trapping was issued by the Ministry of Environment. Trapping, handling and radio-tracking procedures were approved by the Polish Ethical Commission for Research on Animals. We are grateful to Ms. Elizabeth Finch for correcting the English of this manuscript. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author s and the source are credited. Biol Conserv Anim Conserv The Bialowieza Primeval Forest as a case study.

Springer, Berlin. Kosmos Kostova-Huffman S, Johnson SR Impacts of economic reform in Poland: incidence and welfare changes within a consistent framework. Status survey, conflicts, human dimensions, ecology and conservation of bears, lynx and wolves in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland. Final report. Development of Eurasian lynx populations in Norway during years of shifting policy. Environ Manage Conserv Biol Schmidt K Maternal behaviour and juvenile dispersal in the. Eurasian lynx. Conserv Gen Schmidt K, Ratkiewicz M, Konopinski MK The importance of genetic variability and population differentiation in the Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx for conservation, in the context of habitat and climate change.

State Forests. Ethology Tisdell C Biodiversity, conservation and sustainable development, principles and practices with Asian examples. Science World Bank data—data. Biuletyn Monitoringu Przyrody 1— Journal of Avian Biology : e Song Thrush Turdus philomelos and Hawfinch Coccothraustes coccothraustes exhibit non-random nest orientation in dense temperate forest.

Neubauer G. Population-level body condition correlates with productivity in an arctic wader, the dunlin Calidris alpina, during post-breeding migration. Offspring desertion and parental care in the Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybrida. Gwiazda R. Sex-specific foraging behaviour of adult Whiskered Terns Chlidonias hybrida in response to body mass and offspring age. Szczepkowski A. New host and new localities of the Sarcodontia crocea Polyporales, Basidiomycota in Poland. Acta Mycologica Wilk T. The birds of the Polish Carpathians — status, threats, conservation.

OTOP, Marki, pp. Monitoring of Polish birds in — Biuletyn Monitoringu Przyrody Estimation of density and abundance of the Red-breasted Flycatcher Ficedula parva in the Tricity Forest N Poland using replicated point-counts. Different trapping schemes and variable disturbance intensity do not affect hatching success in the Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybrida.

Marchowski D. New sites and occurrence of the Bearded Tooth Hericium erinaceus in Poland. New sites of Climacocystis borealis in northern Poland. Monitoring of Polish birds in Population estimates of breeding birds in Poland in Waterbirds Reproductive parameters of Caspian Gull Larus cachinnans Pallas, in different habitats nearby and away fish ponds.

Bialowieza primeval forest part 2

Polish Journal of Ecology Ptaki Pomorza 5: Haldane's rule revisited: do hybrid females have a shorter lifespan? Survival of hybrids in a recent contact zone between two large gull species. Journal of Evolutionary Biology The Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybrida expansion in Poland: the role of immigration.

Timing of bud burst and tree-leaf development in a multispecies temperate forest.

Detection probability of the Collared Flycatcher Ficedula albicollis during quick, multiple surveys: a case study in an isolated population in northern Poland. Ptaki Pomorza 4: Chiffchaff Phylloscopus collybita with aberrant song - a potential pitfall in identification of vagrant Iberian Chiffchaffs P. El mosquitero iberico. Grupo Iberico de Anillamento, Leon, pp. Adult and pre-breeding survival estimates of the Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybrida breeding in southern Poland. New localities of the apple tooth fungus Sarcodontia crocea and two other rarely recorded lignicolous fungi growing on apple trees Malus sp.

Zagalska-Neubauer M. Reproductive performance and changes in relative species abundance in a mixed colony of Herring and Caspian Gulls, Larus argentatus and L.

2018 Pricing

Biuletyn Monitoringu Przyrody 9: Ptaki Pomorza 3: Goncharov D. Vogelwelt Leaving on migration: estimating departure dates of Barn Swallows Hirundo rustica from summer roosts using a capture-mark-recapture approach. Poradnik metodyczny.

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Monitoring of Polish breeding birds in Biuletyn Monitoringu Przyrody 8: Gibbins C. Identification of Caspian Gull.

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  • Part 2: phenotypic variability and the field characteristics of hybrids. Ostasiewicz M. Index of common forest birds — what can we accomplish using data from common breeding bird monitoring scheme in State Monitoring of Environment? Gavrilyuk M. Efectiveness of colour-ringing of Caspian Gulls at Kreminchuk Reservoir. Visnik Cherkaskovo Univeristetu , Vipusk Diet composition of the Caspian Gull Larus cachinnans in inland Poland: effects of breeding area, breeding stage and sympatric breeding with the Herring Gull Larus argentatus.

    Wiehle D. Beran V. Sylvia Yellow-legged Gulls in Poland: status and separation from yellow-legged Herring Gulls and hybrids. Dutch Birding Lenda M. Do invasive species undergo metapopulation dynamics?