If you have a platelet disorder, your blood has one of three abnormalities:.
How is anemia diagnosed and evaluated?
Platelet disorders are primarily genetic, meaning they are inherited. Some of these disorders include:. Von Willebrand disease is the most common inherited bleeding disorder. It is caused by a deficiency of a protein that helps your blood clot, called von Willebrand factor VWF. Hemophilia is probably the best-known blood clotting disorder. It occurs almost always in males. The most serious complication of hemophilia is excessive and prolonged bleeding.
This bleeding can be either inside or outside your body. The bleeding can start for no apparent reason. Treatment involves a hormone called desmopressin for mild type A, which can promote release of more of the reduced clotting factor, and infusions of blood or plasma for types B and C. Primary thrombocythemia is a rare disorder that can lead to increased blood clotting. This puts you at higher risk for stroke or heart attack.
Anemia of Inflammation or Chronic Disease
The disorder occurs when your bone marrow produces too many platelets. Certain drugs and medical conditions can also affect the functioning of platelets. Be sure to coordinate all your medications with your doctor, even over-the-counter ones you choose yourself. The Canadian Hemophilia Association CHA warns that the following common drugs may affect platelets, especially if taken long-term. There are a large variety of disorders that affect the plasma cells, the type of white blood cells in your body that make antibodies.
Plasma cell myeloma is a rare blood cancer that develops in the plasma cells in the bone marrow.
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Malignant plasma cells accumulate in the bone marrow and form tumors called plasmacytomas , generally in bones such as the spine, hips, or ribs. The abnormal plasma cells produce abnormal antibodies called monoclonal M proteins. These proteins build up in the bone marrow, crowding out the healthy proteins. This can lead to thickened blood and kidney damage. The cause of plasma cell myeloma is unknown. Your doctor may order several tests, including a complete blood count CBC to see how many of each type of blood cell you have.
Your doctor may also order a bone marrow biopsy to see if there are any abnormal cells developing in your marrow. This will involve removing a small amount of bone marrow for testing. Your treatment plan depends on the cause of your illness, your age, and your overall health status. Your doctor may use a combination of treatments to help correct your blood cell disorder. Some pharmacotherapy options include medications such as Nplate romiplostim to stimulate the bone marrow to produce more platelets in a platelet disorder. For white blood cell disorders, antibiotics can help fight infections.
Dietary supplements such as iron and vitamin B-9 or B can treat anemia due to deficiencies. Vitamin B-9 is also called folate , and vitamin B is also known as cobalamin. Bone marrow transplants may repair or replace damaged marrow. These involve transferring stem cells, usually from a donor, to your body to help your bone marrow begin producing normal blood cells. A blood transfusion is another option to help you replace lost or damaged blood cells.
During a blood transfusion, you receive an infusion of healthy blood from a donor. Both procedures require specific criteria to succeed. Bone marrow donors must match or be as close as possible to your genetic profile. Blood transfusions require a donor with a compatible blood type. The variety of blood cell disorders means that your experience of living with one of these conditions may vary greatly from someone else.
Early diagnosis and treatment are the best ways to ensure that you live a healthy and full life with a blood cell disorder. Different side effects of treatments vary depending on the person. Research your options, and speak with your doctor to find the right treatment for you. Finding a support group or counselor to help you deal with any emotional stress about having a blood cell disorder is also helpful.
Read more on two tests that can help diagnose disease by measuring your white…. The test is usually part of a complete blood count….
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A bone marrow biopsy is when your doctor takes a small sample of your solid bone marrow tissue. Learn how to prepare for this test and minimize pain. A complete blood count, or CBC, measures several components of your blood and can help diagnose a broad range of conditions, from anemia and to cancer. Leukemia and lymphoma are blood cancers. Learn more about these conditions. Thalassemia is a blood disorder in which the body makes an abnormal form of hemoglobin.
The problem arises when the body produces an antibody that coats the red blood cells. The two major blood filtering organs in the body are the liver and spleen. These are the places the antibody coated cells are recognized as foreign and destroyed. When the antibody is destroyed, so is the red blood cell. This results in anemia.
The body will try to make up for this loss by increasing the red blood cell production in the bone marrow. One of the ways to see this effect is by measuring the amount of immature, young, red blood cells in the circulating blood.
The reticulocyte count tells us how hard the body is working to make new red blood cells to replace the ones recently destroyed. One way to determine if the body is producing antibodies directed against itself is with a blood test called a Coombs. How did this antibody come to be? Why the body produces an antibody directed at its own red blood cells is unknown in most cases. It can be associated with certain underlying diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, ulcerative colitis, thyroid disease, chronic active hepatitis, or certain immunodeficiency syndromes.
The anemia can be a long-standing problem for many. Antibody production against red blood cells is also associated with certain infections, most commonly, respiratory viruses. The antibodies and anemia tend to go away after the infections are completely resolved.
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Will it go away? In most cases, AIHA comes on acutely, or quickly. Depending on what triggered the antibody production, it can resolve within a few months or last years. What treatments are available? It is common that children with AIHA require red blood cell transfusion support. This corrects the severe anemia which could be life threatening. A blood transfusion does not correct the underlying cause of the AIHA, but it prevents serious complications from severe anemia.
Treatment for AIHA is directed at getting rid of the antibody. This can be done a couple of different ways. Another way to get rid of the antibody is to remove it with an intravenous treatment called pheresis for-e-sis. What should I look for?
The signs of anemia are paleness, tiredness, headache, shortness of breath, dizziness, or heart palpitations. Other things to look for are yellow tint in the skin or whites of the eyes, and dark urine the color of tea or coke. These are signs that the body is destroying red blood cells, and anemia will result. How can I help my child deal with this?
Your child may feel tired, cranky, angry, and afraid. You and your child are suddenly faced with frequent blood tests, medications, and doctor visits. Truthful, honest communication with your child ensures trust and is usually the best approach. Assure the child that nothing they did caused this problem. Make them feel secure knowing that you and the doctors will be giving them special care to help them get well. Be honest about doctor visits, blood tests and medications needed.